Obecný požadavek #3093
Pridat do napovedy konceptualni popis planovani akci/udalosti
Prelozit a prestylovat pomoci markdown do wiki-like stylu nasledujiciho framework.
J. Crisp and C. Holt, Event Planning Framework, 2008 (http://archive.agric.wa.gov.au/PC_90580.html?s=0).
Event Planning Framework
By Jenny Crisp (1) and Colin Holt (2), 2008
1 Development Officer with the Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia
2 Consultant with The ARID Group (www.arid.com.au)
Update of ‘Framework for planning an extension activity: matching process to purpose by Crisp and Holt (2002)
The framework presented in this paper provides a practical structure and process for designing short-term extension events or activities. The main aim of the framework is to achieve the purpose and objectives of an extension event most effectively. It encourages consideration of a range of ideas, tools and processes relating to event design, as well as principles of adult learning and good communication. The framework consists of nine sequential steps, which include guiding questions to stimulate and prompt thinking.
Background to framework
The Event planning framework was motivated by a need amongst extension and development officers in natural resource management and agriculture in Western Australia, for greater structure and guidance in event planning. Inspiration for the framework structure came partially from ‘POP‘, a simple planning concept centred around the headings ‘Purpose�™, ‘Outcomes�™ and ‘Process�™ (Peter Adamson, personal communication, 2000). Applying ‘POP�™ encourages clarification of overall purpose and desired outcomes for an activity or event, and clear planning of process to deliver that purpose and those outcomes. This focus on congruency, or alignment between planning elements in design, was also drawn from two (higher level) extension program or project planning papers by Clark et al (1997), and Timms and Clark (1999).
The Event planning framework (in its previous form) has been tested by a wide range of users, contributing significantly to the practical applicability of the final product.
Purpose of framework
The Event planning framework provides a process to:
Design event activities to deliver overall purpose and objectives most effectively
Consider a wide range of ideas, tools and processes before finalising an overall event design
Incorporate principles of adult learning and good communication into event design
Using the framework
The Event planning framework is intended to help design relatively short-term extension events such as workshops, field days, meetings, or presentation sessions. It can also be used to plan more passive experiences such as information and show displays. A further application is as a reflective tool to assess past activities for continuous improvement.
Each time the framework is used, extension event design will become easier. Step 5 in particular will draw out elements useful to a range of different events. As a balance, be cautious about repeating extension process regularly without due thought or revisiting the framework.
Involving others in planning
It is recommended you involve others in your event planning and design process for greater diversity of ideas, and to provide a check or support for your own ideas. Involving specific stakeholders in the planning (such as potential participants, speakers and helpers) may have the added benefit of increased ownership and commitment to the process.
What the framework will not do
The framework will not give you the answers, or do the thinking for you; it merely provides a structure to broaden and add depth to your thinking. The more you put into it, the more you will get out of it.
The framework is not intended for the design of large-scale extension strategies for projects or programs.
Nine steps to planning an extension event
The framework consists of nine steps; providing a practical sequence for designing an extension event. Each step includes a selection of guiding questions to stimulate and expand your thinking. The questions are only a guide; you may choose to address them all, or just those applicable to your situation. Some are (deliberately) similar to each other, providing further choice for the user.
Nine steps to planning an extension event
Identify purpose of the event
Identify target audience for the event
Check back for congruency of objectives to purpose
Knowledge and skill outcomes
Adult learning principles
Action learning cycle
Visual, auditory, kinaesthetic and olfactory learning
Fine tune ideas into event running sheet
Check back for congruency of process to objectives
Step 1: Identify purpose of event
It is very important to have clearly defined overall purpose for your extension event, to provide the necessary direction and focus for planning. The overall purpose needs to be broadly encompassing, but also reflect what the event intends to realistically deliver.
What is the broad purpose (or purposes) of the extension event?
Why are you having the extension event?
What are you trying to achieve?
Step 2: Identify target audience for the event
It is important to identify the target audience/s to participate in the event, as their needs will influence event design.
Who are the target audience/s for the information?
What are their needs? What are their levels of experience and knowledge on the topic?
What change are you aiming to achieve with the target audience? (Change in awareness, knowledge/understanding, skills, motivation or confidence etc)
What problems or issues will the event address for the target audience?
What contribution might the target audience bring to the event?
Step 3: Identify objectives
Objectives are what you want your extension to deliver; a tangible measure of achievement of the purpose. Objectives should be as specific and detailed as possible, and aligned with the stated purpose/s above. There are two types of objectives: knowledge/skill objectives, which will be delivered through technical content; and experiential objectives, which will be delivered through process, or how the day is put together.
Knowledge/skill objectives - guiding questions
What do you want the event to deliver?
What would a successful activity look like?
What knowledge, information or skills would you like participants to take away?
Experiential objectives - guiding questions
What kind of learning experience would you like participants to have? (eg open, honest, enjoyable, participatory, involved, motivated, empowered, feel safe, feel challenged etc)
Step 4: Check back for congruency
To ensure your extension activity has rigour, it is important to check for congruency between objectives and purpose.
Will achieving all stated objectives fully deliver the purpose of your extension event?
Are your objectives consistent with the purpose?
Step 5: Brainstorm ideas
Step 5 is about gathering and generating as many ideas and thoughts as possible before planning the detail of your extension event. It aims to think big and explore options, before focusing in on the best possible final product and process. The elements listed on the following pages provide a framework for your thinking and again includes guiding questions.
A number of summary references on extension tools and processes are available, including Carman and Keith (1994), Hogan (1998) McIntosh (1997) and Keating (2003). These references provide brief summaries of a wide range of extension tools and processes, with original information sources listed. You can also add to your skills and knowledge of event design by watching and consulting other extension practitioners and presenters.
a) Knowledge/skill objectives - guiding questions
What technical information is available to help participants achieve the knowledge, and information objectives identified in Step 3 above? Where will you find this?
What technical resources, aids or materials will you need?
Are there any existing activities, demonstrations or props to present the technical knowledge?
What can be done to help the participants learn new skills?
How could you incorporate skills practice into your event?
Who else would we like to participate in, or help with the extension activity (apart from the target audience/s)?
b) Adult Learning Principles - guiding questions
References: Knowles (1990); Malouf (1994)
How will you ensure participants are at ease/ in a mentally comfortable environment? At beginning? Throughout day?
How will you ensure the real needs or problems of participants are addressed?
How will you acknowledge and build on the experience within the group?
What participatory activities will we incorporate? How will you involve the participants in discussion and debate?
How will you ensure participants feel a sense of achievement/ progress? During? At end? After?
c) Learning styles - guiding questions
Reference: Honey and Mumford (1992)
For the Activist - Shall I learn or do something new? Will I get to have a go? Will there be a wide variety of activities? Will it be fun? Not boring?
For the Reflector - Shall I be given adequate time to consider, assimilate and prepare? (I don�™t want to be under pressure to be slap-dash.) Will there be opportunities to think about and discuss relevant information? Will there be opportunities to listen to and discuss other perspectives?
For the Pragmatist - Will we be addressing real problems? Real to me? Will the examples or case studies be real and credible? Will there be lots of practical tips and techniques? Will there be opportunities to practice and experiment? Will we come away with action plans, or next steps?
For the Theorist - Will there be lots of opportunities to question and discuss? Is there a clear purpose, objectives and plan for the day? Will the agenda or structure for the day be explained and referred to? Are the concepts and information presented sound and valid? Has the presenter established their credibility?
d) Action learning cycle - guiding questions
References: McGill and Beatty (1995); Mumford (1993)
How will you help participants move around the action learning cycle? (If you are not familiar with cycle, answer following three questions instead)
How will you help participants reflect and make conclusions about what they have seen, heard, done, learned? How will you help participants identify their main learnings from the activity? How will you document these learnings?
How will you help participants put their learning into practice? During the activity? After the activity?
What will the next steps be for the group after this activity? For this topic? For other topics?
e) The hook - guiding questions
What is something special or different that will help people remember the day and information? The magic ‘X�™ factor? The hook?
f) Visual, auditory, kinaesthetic (VAK) and olfactory - guiding questions
References: Steinbach (1993); Flannery (1993)
By planning for learning styles and adult learning principles (b and c above), visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning are generally also covered. The guiding questions provided below can be used as a check.
Visual - What visual aids could you use to good effect?
Auditory - How could you use sound?
Kinaesthetic - How could you use movement and touch most effectively?
Also think about the following:
How could you effectively combine VAK in any activities within the event?
Olfactory - How could you incorporate sense of smell or taste into the event?
g) Managing expectations - guiding questions
Participants will come to your event with some sort of expectation of the event, about what they will learn, what they will take away.
How will you identify participant expectations? (this could be pre-event or at start of event)
How will you adjust event design, or incorporate flexibility into design, to allow expectations to be met?
How will you ensure participants know what each others expectations are? (Participants tend to be more understanding and tolerant of event deign if they are aware of others expectations and needs)
How will you manage expectations that won�™t be met through the event?
Step 6: Fine tune ideas into event running sheet
Step 5 should have stimulated many potential ideas. It is now time to focus on what specific mix of ideas, tools and processes will deliver the purpose of the event most effectively. Considering texture is an important part of this step. (‘Texture�™ in this context refers to planned changes in the character and structure of sessions, activities, environment etc for the duration of the event, for example change in location within room/building/available space, change from whole group to small group work etc). A running sheet can then be generated to consolidate your final event design choices. The running sheet should include as much detail as possible, including event evaluation outlined in Step 9: Post-event tasks.
General - guiding questions
What mix of ideas, tools and processes from Step 5 will deliver the objectives and purpose of the extension event most effectively?
Are there any obvious groupings of ideas, tools or processes?
Can you achieve more than one objective with same tool or process?
How will the event maintain interest and keep energy levels up?
How will the event incorporate change in: location, position in room, style or mode of presenting, visuals, audio, group structure, group activity or task, level group involvement etc?
What time is available to run the event? What time is available to prepare for the event?
What resources are available to run the event? What resources are available to prepare for the event? (presenters, other helpers, skill and knowledge, media, money, venue etc)
Are all elements in Step 5 (a-g) covered in the running sheet in some format?
Example running sheet
Session | Timing | Details (location, room layout, session format, content, reference to pp etc.) | Who responsible | Resources needed
Step 7: Check back for congruency of process to objectives
To ensure your extension event has rigour, it is important to check for congruency between the final process and objectives.
Will completing the process or series of activities outlined in the running sheet, achieve all stated objectives?
How well will the process outlined in the running sheet achieve the information, knowledge and skill objectives?
How well will the process outlined in the running sheet achieve the experiential objectives?
Step 8: Pre-event tasks
Promotion - guiding questions
How will you get people to attend the extension event?
What promotion will be most effective for the target audience/s?
What hook could you use to attract the right target audience/s?
What media will be most effective? What media do you have access to?
General organisation - guiding questions
What do you need to organise or prepare for before the event?
Are you gathering participant expectations before the event?
What speakers do you need to invite? How might they benefit from being involved?
What other people do you need to approach to help with the activity? How might they benefit from being involved?
What venue, sites, permissions do you need to arrange?
What information, handouts, posters, other materials will you need to prepare?
Do you need transport?
Do you need any kind of insurance for the activity?
Have you prepared a timeline for things to complete before the activity?
Step 9: Post-event tasks
Process evaluation (for continuous improvement of design) and immediate impact evaluation of change in awareness, knowledge, understanding, skill levels, should take place at the end of an event, or in a relatively short time period after the event. In some cases, longer terms assessment of impact on practice and behaviour change of participants is carried out at a specified point in time after the event. Data for process evaluation should be collected from participants as well as those involved in organising and delivering event. Observers of the event (eg peers) can provide additional perspective. Participant data from impact assessment will contribute to process improvement.
Guiding questions - impact evaluation
Were the technical/skill needs/expectations of participants met, and to what extent?
Were the stated purpose and technical/skill objectives of the event achieved, and to what extent?
What did participants learn? How might they put that into practice?
How did participant awareness, knowledge, understanding, or skill level change as a result of the event?
How did participant practice or behaviour change as a result of the event (usually longer term)
Guiding questions - process evaluation
Was the event delivered as planned? If not why not?
What elements of the extension activity went well, and why?
What elements of the extension activity did not go well, and why?
How could you improve the process for the next extension activity?
Post-activity follow-up and reflection for participants
Is there anything you can do to add value to the learning experience for participants? Follow up information or actions?
How can you encourage post-activity reflection and action by participants?
Post activity promotion - guiding questions
How can you promote what the activity achieved?
Who should receive promotional material?
Who should be thanked for their contribution towards the success of the activity? (eg participants, funders, local community, peers)
What will be the key message for each group of recipients?
What photos or other material could be used for promotion?
Adamson P (personal communication 2000) In ‘Experiential Learning Program Manual.�™ Adventure West, WA.
Carman K, Keith K (1994) ‘Community consultation techniques: purposes, processes and pitfalls.�™ (Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Qld. Information Series QI 94030)
Clark R, Fell D, Timms J, Coutts J (1997) A framework for the design, management and evaluation of extension processes. In ‘Proceedings 2nd APEN Conference�™. Albury NSW. pp. 621-627. (Australasia Pacific Extension Network)
Flannery D (1993) (Ed) Applying cognitive learning theory to adult learning. New directions for adult and continuing education 59, 1-13.
Honey P, Mumford A (1992) ‘The manual of learning styles.�™ (Peter Honey: Berkshire)
Knowles M (1990). ‘The adult learner: a neglected species (4th edition).�™ (Gulf Publishing Company: Houston)
Hogan C (1998) ‘Processes for group facilitators.�™ (School of Management, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA)
Keating C (2003) ‘Facilitation Toolkit - A practical guide for working more effectively with people and groups�™ Department of Environmental Protection, Water and Rivers Commission, Department of Conservation and Land Management
Malouf D (1994) ‘How to teach adults in a fun and exciting way.�™ (Business & Professional Publishing: NSW)
McGill I, Beaty L (1995) ‘Action learning: a guide for professional, management and educational development (2nd edition).�™ (Kogan Page: London)
McIntosh F (1997) ‘Working towards group self reliance.�™ (Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane, Queensland. Training Series QE 97002)
Mumford A (1993) Putting learning styles to work: an integrated approach. Journal of European Industrial Training 17/ 10, 3-9.
Steinbach R (1993) ‘The adult learner: strategies for success.�™ (Crisp Publications: California)
Timms J, Clark R (1999) Extension process design, management and improvement. In ‘2020 Vision: extension into the new millenium, 2nd Central Queensland Extension Forum, 18-20 May 1999�™. Albury NSW. (Eds Long P, Donaghy P, Grimes J) pp 248-255. (Dept Primary Industries, Queensland)
Page reviewed : October 2008
#6 Updated by Michal Stanke 12 months ago
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#3 Updated by Michal Stanke about 3 years ago
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#2 Updated by Michal Stanke about 3 years ago
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